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3 mark deutsches reich

3 mark deutsches reich

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3 Mark Deutsches Reich Video

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Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not in itself have monarchical connotations.

The word Kaiserreich is applied to denote an empire with an emperor ; hence the German Empire of — is termed Deutsches Kaiserreich in standard works of reference.

The history of the nation-state known as the German Reich is commonly divided into three periods:. The name Deutsches Reich was occasionally applied in contemporary maps to the Holy Roman Empire — , also called "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" from the 16th century onwards, though it constituted a supranational entity extending beyond the frontiers of the German language area Sprachraum.

The first attempt to establish a "German Empire" during the March Revolution by the Frankfurt Constitution ultimately failed: This name was made the official state name only during the last two years —45 of Nazi rule under Adolf Hitler , [3] although the change was never proclaimed.

After World War II , the denotation "German Reich " quickly fell into disuse in Allied-occupied Germany , however, and the state's continued existence remained a matter of debate; the post-war Bonn Republic maintained the continued existence of the German Reich as an 'overall state", but dormant while East and West Germany continued to be divided.

Nevertheless, when Germany was reunited in the term "German Reich " was not revived as a title for the Berlin Republic.

The German word Reich translates to the English word "empire" it also translates to such words as "realm" or "domain".

However, this translation was not used throughout the full existence of the German Reich. Historically, only Germany from to — when Germany was under the rule of an emperor Kaiser — is known in English as the "German Empire" Deutsches Kaiserreich in German historiography , while the term "German Reich" describes Germany from to Bavaria and Saxony were united with Prussia under imperial rule, by the Hohenzollern dynasty.

The title "German Emperor" was a compromise; Wilhelm I had wanted the title of "Emperor of Germany", but Bismarck refused this, so as to avoid implying a claim to extended monarchical authority over non-Prussian German kingdoms.

On 14 April , the Reichstag parliament passed the Constitution of the German Empire Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches , which was published two days later.

However, originating from the North German Confederation , the Empire never comprised all "German" lands; as it excluded Luxembourg , and those Cisleithanian crown lands of Austria-Hungary which had been part of the former German Confederation until Moreover, it included the whole of the Kingdom of Prussia , the eastern parts of which had never been included in historic German lands.

The unification under Prussian leadership manifested Bismarck's "Lesser German" solution of the German question after the Austro-Prussian War of , realised with the support of his national liberal allies.

On the other hand, the German Reich of comprised extended Prussian territories with large non-German sections of the population, like Posen , West Prussia or Schleswig , and also territories with predominantly German populations which had never been constitutionally "German", such as East Prussia.

Bismarck was otherwise unable, however, to avoid the term German Reich acquiring connotations from the English term "empire" or the Dutch term "rijk"; especially in emulation of late 19th century Imperialism , as exemplified by the British Empire , the Dutch Empire and the French colonial empire.

Although a latecomer and against Bismarck's pleading , the German Empire established colonies in modern Togo , Cameroon , Namibia , Tanzania and Polynesia ; with an extensive naval capability to support these.

At the same time strong Pan-Germanic political forces emerged, pressing for the borders of the Reich to be extended into a German-led central European multi-ethnic empire, emulating and rivalling Imperial Russia to the east.

Reich was left untranslated and no longer referred to an "empire" but, instead, took on the connotation of "Realm" or "State".

Apart from official documents, post-World War I Germany was referred to as the "German Reich" — never as the "German Empire" — for example, by British politicians [7] —and the word "Reich" was used untranslated by Allied prosecutors throughout the Nuremberg Trials , with "German Empire" only used to describe Germany before it became a federal republic in At the Unification of Germany, the Reich was established constitutionally as a federation of monarchies, each having entered the federation with a defined territory; and consequently the unitary nationalism of the 'German Reich' was initially specified at Article 1 of the constitution in territorial terms, as the lands within the former boundaries of this particular subset of German monarchies [8].

This geographical understanding of the Reich became steadily superseded in the period up to the first World War by an understanding of the German Reich as a unitary nation state identified with the German national people according to the principle of jus sanguinis , and drawing on the rhetoric of "the sovereignty of the nation" in the Frankfurt Constitution [9] —albeit that many ethnic " Germans " as with the German-speaking peoples of Austria remained outside the national people constituting the German Empire of and also that the Empire of included extensive territories such as Posen with predominantly non-German populations.

This transition became formalised in the constitution of the Weimar Republic , [10] where Article 1 identifies the Reich as deriving its authority from the German national people, while Article 2 identifies the state territory under the Reich as the lands which, at the time of the constitution's adoption, were within the authority of the German state.

The identity of Reich and people ran both ways—not only did the institutions of the German state derive their legitimacy from the German people, so, too, the German people derived their inherent identity and patriotic duties from their being collectively constituted as an organ and institution of the German Reich [11].

Subsequently, the term "German Reich" continued to be applied both as identifying with the national people, and also with the state territory, but, increasingly, the application of the term to the German national people came to be seen as primary.

The — republic , which was also called German Reich, was ignored and denounced by the Nazis as a historical aberration.

The name "Weimar Republic" was first used in after Hitler referred to the period as the " Republik von Weimar " Republic of Weimar at a rally in Munich with the term later becoming mainstream during the s both within and outside Germany.

A book entitled Das Dritte Reich by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck [15] counted the medieval Holy Roman Empire as the first and the — monarchy as the second, which was then to be followed by a "reinvigorated" third one.

On 8 May , with the capitulation of the German armed forces, the supreme command of the Wehrmacht was handed over to the Allies. The Allies refused to recognise Karl Dönitz as Reichspräsident or to recognise the legitimacy of his Flensburg Government so-called because it was based at Flensburg and controlled only a small area around the town and, on 5 June , the four powers signed the Berlin Declaration and assumed de jure supreme authority with respect to Germany.

At the Potsdam Conference , Allied-occupied Germany was defined as comprising "Germany as a whole"; and was divided into British , French , American and Soviet occupation zones; while the Allied Powers exercised the state authority assumed by the Berlin Declaration in transferring the former eastern territories of the German Reich east of the Oder—Neisse line to the Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union.

The court ruled that since the Federal Republic FRG had been partially identical with the German Reich and not merely its successor.

A 20 Reichsmark note was introduced in , using a design taken from an unissued Austrian schilling banknote type. Five Reichsmark notes were issued in Throughout this period, the Rentenbank also issued banknotes denominated in Rentenmark, mostly in low denominations.

In preparation for the occupation of Germany, the United States issued occupation banknotes dated , printed by the Forbes Company of Boston.

These were printed in similar colours with different sizes for groups of denominations. The issuer was the Alliierte Militärbehörde "Allied military authorities" with In Umlauf gesetzt in Deutschland "in legal circulation in Germany" printed on the obverse.

The Soviet Union demanded copies of the engraving plates, ink, and associated equipment in early , and on 14 April Henry Morgenthau and Harry Dexter White of the U.

Using a printing plant in occupied Leipzig , the Soviet authorities printed large runs of occupation marks.

Since these were convertible to U. In Rhineland-Palatinate issued 5 and 10 Pfennig notes with Geldschein on them. Coins and banknotes for circulation in the occupied territories during the war were issued by the Reichskreditkassen.

Holed, zinc coins in 5 and 10 Reichspfennig denominations were struck in and Banknotes were issued between and in denominations of 50 Reichspfennig, 1, 2, 5, 20, and 50 Reichsmark.

These served as legal tender alongside the currency of the occupied countries. The coins were originally planned in great numbers of million and million, Rpf 5 and 10 Rpf respectively.

The first embossing order, which was issued in April , was about 40 million 5 Rpf and million 10 Rpf. The total amount was divided between each of the seven German mints after the embossing key of The contract was stopped in August as the Wehrmacht, which had requested the coins for Belgium and France, had no more need of it.

When the embossing stopped, only Berlin "A" and Munich "D" produced significant quantities, but they still came to only a small extent of original production plans.

The majority were melted down due to the limited supply of metal and thus, most mint marks are now quite rare except for 5 A and D, and 10 A.

Special issues of Reichsmark currency were issued for use by the German Armed Forces from to This series was unifaced. The second issue notes of 1, 5, 10, and 50 Reichsmark were equal in value to the ordinary German Reichsmark and were printed on both sides.

There were different AMCs for each liberated area of Europe. Various special issues of Reichsmark currency were issued for use in concentration and prisoner of war POW camps.

None were legal tender in Germany itself. From to tokens were struck for use within the Lodz Ghetto. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from German reichsmark. It is not to be confused with RM. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

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Prewar bronze 1 Reichspfennig reverse with color similar to U. Prewar 5 Reichspfennig reverse, note golden color from aluminum-bronze composition.

Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 18 March Standard Catalog of World Coins: Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: Bruce II and Neil Shafer editors 7th ed.

Currencies named mark or similar. Retrieved from " https: Wikipedia introduction cleanup from June All pages needing cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from June All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify Articles lacking in-text citations from February All articles lacking in-text citations Articles with multiple maintenance issues Articles with hAudio microformats Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text Articles to be expanded from September All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes Articles with German-language external links Interlanguage link template link number Articles with Russian-language external links Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.

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Bohemian and Moravian koruna. Pound sterling Channel Islands. Independent State of Croatia kuna. Denomination and two oak leaves. Mintmark below the denomination and between leaves.

State Mint Berlin , Germany. Austrian Mint Vienna , Austria. Bavarian Central Mint Munich , Germany. Mint of Hamburg , Germany.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reichsmark. Currency of Germany Weimar Republic borders — Note: In parallel with Rentenmark.

East German Mark Reason: Transfer of the " Recovered Territories " to Poland Ratio:

3 mark deutsches reich -

Umlaufmünzen oder zu besonderen Anlässen Gedenkmünzen geprägt. Sollte ich eine Münze nicht im Bestand haben. März in dieser Version in die Auswahl der informativen Listen und Portale aufgenommen. Artikel ansehen MA Shop Diller. Durch das Münzgesetz vom 9. Welche Geschichte haben 3-Mark-Silbermünzen aus dem deutschen Kaiserreich? Fast Stempelglanz Wilhelm II. Artikel ansehen MA Shop Dr. HRR und Deutsche Länder. Gedenkmünze Tod Friedrichs I. Artikel ansehen MA Shop Zufahl. Es gibt aber auch Münzen, die viereckig oder einen Wellenschnitt besitzen. Der Rand darf leichte Schäden aufweisen. Solche Kosten wie z. Kursmünze Wappen der Freien Hansestadt Bremen. Durchmesser Der Durchmesser einer Münze ist neben der Stärke eine der Eigenschaften, die die räumlichen Abmessungen der Münze beschreiben. Der Prägeglanz ist in geschützten Vertiefungen noch vorhanden.

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